Viterbo, Italy

Landscape and Environmental Planning and Design

Pianificazione e progettazione del paesaggio e dell'ambiente

Language: ItalianStudies in Italian
Subject area: engineering and engineering trades
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Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns). Design has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases, the direct construction of an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, coding, and graphic design) is also considered to use design thinking.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills. There are even a couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning well. As such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. An important further meaning, often just called "planning" is the legal context of permitted building developments.
The design process involves a series of operations. In map design, it is convenient to break this sequence into three stages. In the first stage, you draw heavily on imagination and creativity. You think of various graphic possibilities, consider alternative ways...
Arthur H. Robinson (1953) Elements of Cartography p. 318
Good design looks right. It is simple (clear and uncomplicated). Good design is also elegant, and does not look contrived. A map should be aesthetically pleasing, thought provoking, and communicative
Arthur H. Robinson (1953) Elements of Cartography p. 318
This is exactly the meaning of design: the conflict between form and content, form being the problem. [...] It is the coming together of form and content that is the realization of design.
Paul Rand (2008), Conversations with Students p. 32
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