Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT).
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument [compensation ] of those who pursue them" .
Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it.
Samuel Johnson, Boswell's Life of Johnson, 18th April 1775.
We live in a society absolutely dependent on science and technology and yet have cleverly arranged things so that almost no one understands science and technology. That’s a clear prescription for disaster.
Carl Sagan, from interview with Anne Kalosh in her article Bringing Science Down to Earth, in Hemispheres (Oct 1994), 99. Collected and cited in Tom Head (ed.), Conversations with Carl Sagan (2006), 100.
The objective of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is the appropriate integration of enterprise operations by means of efficient information exchange within the enterprise with the help of Information Technology (IT). Integration includes the physical and logical connection of processes by means of data communications technology operating to specified standards, but also the integration of enterprise functions as welt as enterprise information. Generalized models and an open systems architecture are required to reduce the system complexity to a manageable level. They are used to identify the principal components, processes, constraints and information sources used to describe a manufacturing enterprise progressing towards CIM. In this paper, the basic concepts of an open-systems architecture for CIM called CIM-OSA are presented. The function view of the CIM-OSA modelling framework is discussed. CIM-OSA provides a unique set of advanced features to model functionality and behaviour of CIM systems at three distinct levels (requirements definition, design specification and implementation description).
François Vernadat & H. Jorysz (1990). "CIM-OSA Part I: Total Enterprise Modelling and Function View", In: Int. J. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 3(3), p. 144-156. Abstract.